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Étude et réalisation d'un lidar dial cohérent fibré à 1.65 µm pour la mesure simultanée de la vitesse du vent et de la concentration de méthane

Abstract : Especially in the oil and gas industry, methane leaks threaten both safety and environment. The real-time monitoring of such plumes could prevent potential human or ecological disasters. In this context, one part of NAOMI project, involving TOTAL and ONERA, aims to develop remote sensing tools capable of locating (with a spatial resolution of 100 m) and characterize major methane leaks from a safety distance (1 km) on the field. To meet these specifications, the present work describes the study, design and performances assessments of a fiber lidar emitting in the near infrared (1.65 µm) : VEGA ("VEnt et GAz", French for "wind and gaz"). The choice of a coherent detection scheme allows to consider a dual-function system, able to simultaneously measure wind speed with Doppler shift (useful to assess plume dynamic) and methane concentration with the DIAL technique. In the lab, integrated-path measurements (target at 2.2 km) have shown, a first to our knowledge with a coherent lidar, VEGA's sensibility to methane. The accuracy of ambient level measurements (1.95 ± 0.26 ppm for 1 s averaging) is seen to be satisfying for the target application (involving much higher concentration). During a field campaign in 2018 (Lacq, France), the lidar has shown a good thermo-mechanical behaviour, justifying the choice of an all-fibered architecture. The use of several measurement procedures (simple, several laser lines of sight, several wavelengths) allowed VAGA to identify controlled methane leaks at 200 m (30 m resolution) in a wide range of flow rates (from 0.1 to 300 g.s-¹. During the campaign, the observed statistical errors, in the ±10 to 100ppm range for 1 s averaging, are in good agreement with theoretical models. Assessing these errors at greater distances shows, nonetheless, a need to improve the lidar (through mentioned improvement tracks) to reach an adequate precision at 1 km. Eventually, the basis for autonomous flow rate estimation, combining both wind and gas data, had been presented.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 14, 2020 - 10:07:23 AM
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Simon Le Méhauté. Étude et réalisation d'un lidar dial cohérent fibré à 1.65 µm pour la mesure simultanée de la vitesse du vent et de la concentration de méthane. Optique [physics.optics]. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020DUNK0555⟩. ⟨tel-02937523⟩

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