Atomization of cryogenic rocket engines coaxial injectors. Modeling aspects and experimental investigations

Abstract : Even if it has been extensively studied in the last decades, atomization remains a key point in the understanding and modeling of cryogenic rocket engines combustion chambers because the physical processes in the chamber are highly dependent on the characteristics of the spray produced by the injector. The parameters describing the spray, like the expansion angle, the penetration depth, the droplet size distribution, are usually given as input data in the numerical simulation codes of such engines. To overcome this difficulty, ONERA is developing in the CEDRE code [8] a fully eulerian coupling strategy between "separated" and "dispersed" two-phase flows solvers. To reach this crucial challenge, diffuse interface models are used for primary atomization while kinetic models are used to compute the combustion of the spray. The aim is to compute the spray produced by a coaxial injector directly from the upstream global parameters (injection pressures, mass flow rates ...) instead of imposing its characteristics as an input of the simulation. In parallel to this numerical work, an experimental investigation was started on the Mascotte cryogenic test facility [9], in order to improve existing measurements, with the objective to provide relevant experimental data to validate the model. Experiments were run at 1 MPa in a single element combustion chamber. The injector was fed with liquid oxygen (LOX) atomized by a co-flow of gas at room temperature. Both cold flow and hot fire tests were achieved. The hydrogen used in the combustion tests was replaced by helium for the cold flow experiment. Similarity between cold and hot conditions was obtained by keeping constant the geometry, the chamber pressure, the LOX mass flow rate and the momentum flux ratio in the injector exit plane. The spray was investigated with a high speed camera in a backlighting optical configuration.
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A. Murrone, N. Fdida, C. Le Touze, L. Vingert. Atomization of cryogenic rocket engines coaxial injectors. Modeling aspects and experimental investigations. Space Propulsion 2014, May 2014, COLOGNE, Germany. ⟨hal-01068686⟩

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